This book is devoted to particle-fluid two-phase flow which forms the basis of, among others, fluidization. Main attention is focused on the underlying mechanisms of the phenomena and their interrelationships with a view to formulating an integrated theory to guide the intelligent design and operation of two-phase equipment: chemical reactors, heat and mass transfer apparatus, pipelines for transporting or moving granular materials. This book propounds two essential concepts — multi-scale analysis and the method of energy-minimization. These concepts are applied to various possible structures of two-phase flow designated under four categories — phase, regime, pattern and region — to describe both local and overall hydrodynamics.
This book consists of five chapters. The first chapter introduces the essential characteristics of particle-fluid two-phase flow, and proposes the primary framework of system designation. Chapter 2 formulates the Energy-Minimization Multi-Scale, or EMMS model, on the basis of the two essential concepts. Chapter 3 gives the solution of the model and presents the results of computation dealing, in succession, with local hydrodynamics (phases), dependency of local hydrodynamics on operating conditions (regimes), and on material properties (patterns), and, lastly, overall hydrodynamics, or spatial distribution of regimes (regions). Chapter 4 outlines significant experimental evidence for the EMMS model and other phenomena relevant to particle-fluid two-phase flow. Chapter 5 presents an example of simulating a typical two-phase flow system — the circulating fluidized bed, to demonstrate how to calculate its whole flow field and how to evaluate gas/solid contacting in the system, and presents several new types of reactors designed according to the EMMS model. This last chapter concludes the book with multi-aspect prospects for further application of the EMMS model in other fields.
Jinghai Li is president of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), a professor at the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS.
Mooson Kwauk is an emeritus director of the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and is an advisor to the EMMS Group.